Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry最新文献

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Metal-free oxidative coupling of aryl acetylene with elemental sulphur and amines: facile access to α-ketothioamides. 芳基乙炔与元素硫和胺的无金属氧化偶联:轻松获得 α-硫代酮酰胺。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00830h
Deepika Sharma, Rana Chatterjee, Vasudevan Dhayalan, Rambabu Dandela
{"title":"Metal-free oxidative coupling of aryl acetylene with elemental sulphur and amines: facile access to α-ketothioamides.","authors":"Deepika Sharma, Rana Chatterjee, Vasudevan Dhayalan, Rambabu Dandela","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00830h","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00830h","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>A simple and efficient oxidative coupling of aromatic alkynes with elemental sulphur and secondary amines has been reported. The iodine/DMSO system easily promoted the transformations, affording thioglyoxamides <i>via</i> C-S, C-O, and C-N bond formations. In this context, acetylenic C-H bond oxidation has occurred through iodination, leading to the desired products. Moreover, this metal-free, one-pot protocol is accomplished by using readily available starting materials, without external oxidants, and under aerobic conditions, providing a variety of α-ketothioamide compounds in moderate to good yields.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-12","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141588989","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
A bifunctional Pasteurella multocida β1-3-galactosyl/N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (PmNatB) for the highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of disaccharides. 用于高效化学合成双糖的多杀性巴氏杆菌β1-3-半乳糖基/N-乙酰半乳糖氨基转移酶(PmNatB)。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00889h
Xiaohong Yang, Bijoyananda Mishra, Hai Yu, Yijun Wei, Xi Chen
{"title":"A bifunctional <i>Pasteurella multocida</i> β1-3-galactosyl/<i>N</i>-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase (PmNatB) for the highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of disaccharides.","authors":"Xiaohong Yang, Bijoyananda Mishra, Hai Yu, Yijun Wei, Xi Chen","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00889h","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00889h","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>Glycosyltransferases are nature's key biocatalysts for the formation of glycosidic bonds. Discovery and characterization of new synthetically useful glycosyltransferases are critical for the development of efficient enzymatic and chemoenzymatic strategies for producing complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Herein we report the identification of <i>Pasteurella multocida</i> PmNatB as a bifunctional single-catalytic-domain glycosyltransferase with both β1-3-galactosyltransferase and β1-3-<i>N</i>-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase activities. It is a novel glycosyltransferase for constructing structurally diverse GalNAcβ3Galα/βOR and Galβ3GalNAcα/βOR disaccharides in one-pot multienzyme systems with <i>in situ</i> generation of UDP-sugars.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-12","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141588957","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Au(I)/Sc(III)-co-catalyzed tandem spiroannulation/cycloisomerization of 3-(2-ethynylaryl)-N-tosylaziridines with indoles to access 5H-benzo[b]carbazoles. Au(I)/Sc(III)-co-catalyzed tandem spiroannulation/cycloisomerization of 3-(2-ethynylaryl)-N-tosylaziridines with indoles to access 5H-benzo[b]carbazoles.
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00782d
Wei Wang, Lan Zheng, Wen-Jie Liang, Xin-Yi Fu, Yu-Qing Zhang, Ru-Fang Meng, Huan Zhang, Chenxiang Lin, Wei Su, Jun-An Xiao
{"title":"Au(I)/Sc(III)-co-catalyzed tandem spiroannulation/cycloisomerization of 3-(2-ethynylaryl)-<i>N</i>-tosylaziridines with indoles to access 5<i>H</i>-benzo[<i>b</i>]carbazoles.","authors":"Wei Wang, Lan Zheng, Wen-Jie Liang, Xin-Yi Fu, Yu-Qing Zhang, Ru-Fang Meng, Huan Zhang, Chenxiang Lin, Wei Su, Jun-An Xiao","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00782d","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00782d","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>An unusual spiroannulation/cycloisomerization cascade of 3-(2-ethynylaryl)-<i>N</i>-tosylaziridines with indoles enabled by cooperative gold/scandium catalysis is presented, which facilitates the synthesis of 5<i>H</i>-benzo[<i>b</i>]carbazoles in moderate to excellent yields. This protocol features a broad substrate scope and good functional-group compatibility. Additionally, the resulting 5<i>H</i>-benzo[<i>b</i>]carbazoles exhibit good fluorescence properties, demonstrating the synthetic practicality of this method. Moreover, control experiments were performed to illustrate the reaction mechanism.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-12","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141588987","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Metal-free efficient synthesis of aryl sulfonamides from N-hydroxy sulfonamide and amines. 从 N-羟基磺酰胺和胺无金属高效合成芳基磺酰胺。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-12 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00878b
E V Venkat Shivaji Ramarao, Jayshree Nandkumar Solanke, Rana Chatterjee, Savita Gat, Vasudevan Dhayalan, Rambabu Dandela
{"title":"Metal-free efficient synthesis of aryl sulfonamides from <i>N</i>-hydroxy sulfonamide and amines.","authors":"E V Venkat Shivaji Ramarao, Jayshree Nandkumar Solanke, Rana Chatterjee, Savita Gat, Vasudevan Dhayalan, Rambabu Dandela","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00878b","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00878b","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>A simple and novel approach has been developed for the synthesis of sulfonamides from <i>N</i>-hydroxy sulfonamide. Notably, the iodine-<i>tert</i>-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) system efficiently promoted the sulfonylation reactions of <i>N</i>-hydroxy sulfonamides and amines <i>via</i> the oxidative cleavage of an S-N bond. A variety of aryl sulfonamides were prepared in moderate to good yields using readily available starting materials and the biomass-derived 2-MeTHF solvent. The present method has the advantages of using metal-free reagents, an eco-friendly medium, cost-effective reagents, wide substrate scope, and mild conditions.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-12","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141588988","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Sequential nucleophilic aromatic substitutions on cyanuric chloride: synthesis of BODIPY derivatives and mechanistic insights. 三聚氯氰的顺序亲核芳香取代:BODIPY 衍生物的合成及机理研究。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00683f
Bruno da Silva Marques, Karine Nascimento de Andrade, Bárbara Pereira Peixoto, Fernando Martins Dos Santos, Leandro Ferreira Pedrosa, Rodolfo Goetze Fiorot, Marcos Costa de Souza
{"title":"Sequential nucleophilic aromatic substitutions on cyanuric chloride: synthesis of BODIPY derivatives and mechanistic insights.","authors":"Bruno da Silva Marques, Karine Nascimento de Andrade, Bárbara Pereira Peixoto, Fernando Martins Dos Santos, Leandro Ferreira Pedrosa, Rodolfo Goetze Fiorot, Marcos Costa de Souza","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00683f","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00683f","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>Herein we report a study on the sequential substitution of different nucleophiles on cyanuric chloride to obtain potential candidates for metal sensors (5a-c). The set of nucleophiles on the 1,3,5-triazine ring includes a phenolic BODIPY, an aminoalkyl pyridine and aminoalkyl phosphoramidates, each one designed to play a specific role in the final fluoroionophore. Three new triazine triads were synthesized in similar yields: 5a (45%), 5b (43%) and 5c (52%) after a methodical sequential combination of the nucleophiles <i>via</i> thermodependent nucleophilic aromatic substitution of the three chlorine atoms of cyanuric chloride. To ratify the synthetic results we simulated the reaction mechanisms for the different nucleophiles, aiming to address the distinctive orthogonality and temperature control inherent in this process, identifying and providing a sound rationale for any preferential sequence of nucleophiles inserted into the triazine core. According to our experimental and computational analysis (thermo- and kinetic preferences), we have identified the following preferential order for the sequential substitution: <i>p</i>-hydroxybenzaldehyde > 2-(pyridin-2-yl)ethanamine > aminoalkyl phosphoramidate, indicating that all steps follow a single-step process (concerted) in two stages, where nucleophilic addition precedes leaving group dissociation. The Meisenheimer σ-complex was identified as a transition state structure, with insufficient stability to exist as an intermediate. We observed a consistent and progressive increase in barrier height: 2-8 kcal mol<sup>-1</sup> for the first step, 9-15 kcal mol<sup>-1</sup> for the second step, and >15 kcal mol<sup>-1</sup> for the third substitution. These findings align with the experimental observation of thermodependency in the sequential substitution.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-11","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141578328","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Electrochemical oxidative thioetherification of aldehyde hydrazones with thiophenols. 醛肼与噻吩酚的电化学氧化硫醚化反应。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00833b
Meiqian Hu, Xiaolin Yang, Shuai Zhang, Changsheng Qin, Zhihua Zhang, Jingfang Wang, Fanghua Ji, Guangbin Jiang
{"title":"Electrochemical oxidative thioetherification of aldehyde hydrazones with thiophenols.","authors":"Meiqian Hu, Xiaolin Yang, Shuai Zhang, Changsheng Qin, Zhihua Zhang, Jingfang Wang, Fanghua Ji, Guangbin Jiang","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00833b","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00833b","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>An electrochemically promoted oxidative dehydrogenation cross-coupling reaction between aldehyde hydrazones and thiophenols is demonstrated for the first time, which resulted in a variety of (<i>Z</i>)-thioetherified products in moderate to excellent yields. This strategy can be carried out under an air atmosphere, featuring scalability and excellent stereoselectivity. In addition, the transformation efficiently produces readily recyclable disulfide as a by-product with high yields, which significantly reduces the environmental pollution caused by thioetherification.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-11","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141578327","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Atropisomeric 1-phenylbenzimidazoles affecting microtubule organization: influence of axial chirality. 影响微管组织的异构体 1-苯基苯并咪唑:轴向手性的影响。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-11 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00863d
Jana Pospíšilová, Tomáš Heger, Ondřej Kurka, Marie Kvasnicová, Anna Chládková, Ivan Nemec, Lucie Rárová, Petr Cankař
{"title":"Atropisomeric 1-phenylbenzimidazoles affecting microtubule organization: influence of axial chirality.","authors":"Jana Pospíšilová, Tomáš Heger, Ondřej Kurka, Marie Kvasnicová, Anna Chládková, Ivan Nemec, Lucie Rárová, Petr Cankař","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00863d","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00863d","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>Benzimidazoles are frequently used in medicinal chemistry. Their anticancer effect is among the most prominent biological activities exhibited by this scaffold. Although numerous benzimidazole derivatives have been synthesized, possible atropisomerism of <i>ortho</i>-substituted 1-phenylbenzimidazoles has been largely overlooked. The aim of this research was to synthesize a small library of novel atropisomeric benzimidazole derivatives and explore their biological activity in various cancer and normal human cell lines. The new unique structural motif provides an interesting 3D architecture with axial chirality, which further contributes to molecular complexity and specificity. Racemates and their separated atropisomers arrested the cell cycle, caused apoptosis, and affected microtubule organization in cancer cells <i>in vitro</i> at different intensities. Moreover, this phenomenon was also verified by the inhibition of endothelial cell migration. These results showed that (+)-atropisomers, especially <b>5n</b>, exhibit a stronger effect and show promise as agents for cancer therapy.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-11","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141578326","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Silylene acetals from cheap reagents: synthesis and regioselective opening. 从廉价试剂中提取硅炔缩醛:合成和区域选择性开环。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-10 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00721b
Morten Lang Zimmermann, Daniel Marquard Feldballe, Christian Marcus Pedersen
{"title":"Silylene acetals from cheap reagents: synthesis and regioselective opening.","authors":"Morten Lang Zimmermann, Daniel Marquard Feldballe, Christian Marcus Pedersen","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00721b","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00721b","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>In this communication, a practical method for using cheap and easily available silylene chlorides for diol protection is presented. The method is based on activation of the reagents using Finkelstein-like conditions. Silylene acetals of carbohydrates are synthesized, and it is furthermore shown how these can be regioselectively opened using Grignard reagents.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-10","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141562017","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Kinetic study of the reaction of thiophene-tocopherols with peroxyl radicals enlightenings the role of O˙⋯S noncovalent interactions in H-atom transfer. 噻吩-生育酚与过氧自由基反应的动力学研究揭示了 O ˙⋯S 非共价相互作用在 H 原子转移中的作用。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-10 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00944d
Andrea Baschieri, Zongxin Jin, Riccardo Amorati, Kristian Vasa, Allegra Baroncelli, Stefano Menichetti, Caterina Viglianisi
{"title":"Kinetic study of the reaction of thiophene-tocopherols with peroxyl radicals enlightenings the role of O˙⋯S noncovalent interactions in H-atom transfer.","authors":"Andrea Baschieri, Zongxin Jin, Riccardo Amorati, Kristian Vasa, Allegra Baroncelli, Stefano Menichetti, Caterina Viglianisi","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00944d","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00944d","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>Three new α-tocopherol thiophene derivatives were efficiently synthesized, characterized and used for the first time as chain-breaking antioxidants for the inhibition of the autoxidation of reference oxidizable substrates. The rate constant of the reaction with alkylperoxyl (ROO˙) radicals and the stoichiometry of radical trapping (<i>n</i>) for the thiophene-tocopherol compounds were determined by measuring the oxygen consumption during the autoxidation of styrene or isopropylbenzene, using a differential pressure transducer. The measurement of the reaction with ROO˙ radicals in an apolar solvent at 30 °C showed inhibition rate constants (<i>k</i><sub>inh</sub>) in the order of 10<sup>4</sup> M<sup>-1</sup> s<sup>-1</sup>. To rationalise the kinetic results, the effect of the thiophene ring on the H-atom donation by O-H groups of the functionalized tocopherols was investigated by theoretical calculations. The importance of noncovalent interactions (including an unusual O˙⋯S bond) for the stability of the conformers has been shown, and the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE(OH)) of these derivatives was determined. Finally, the photophysical properties of these new compounds were investigated to understand if the addition of thiophene groups changes the absorption or emission spectra of the tocopherol skeleton for their possible application as luminescent molecular probes.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-10","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141562016","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Trifunctionalization of CC bonds in vinyl azides to access densely functionalized phenanthridines enabled by the NCS/AgNO2 system. 通过 NCS/AgNO2 系统对乙烯基叠氮化物中的 CC 键进行三官能化,以获得致密官能化的菲啶。
IF 2.9 3区 化学
Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-10 DOI: 10.1039/d4ob00905c
Shaobo Ren, Jian Zhu, Yunkui Liu
{"title":"Trifunctionalization of CC bonds in vinyl azides to access densely functionalized phenanthridines enabled by the NCS/AgNO<sub>2</sub> system.","authors":"Shaobo Ren, Jian Zhu, Yunkui Liu","doi":"10.1039/d4ob00905c","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1039/d4ob00905c","url":null,"abstract":"<p><p>An unprecedented trifunctionalization of CC bonds in 2-(1-azidovinyl)-1,1'-biphenyls has been successfully achieved using the NCS/AgNO<sub>2</sub> system, leading to the preparation of 6-(dichloro(nitro)methyl)phenanthridines in moderate to good yields. In this process, the NCS/AgNO<sub>2</sub> system serves as a NO<sub>2</sub> radical initiator as well as a chloro group source. The present protocol is a rare example of the selective construction of densely functionalized phenanthridine derivatives in a one-pot manner.</p>","PeriodicalId":96,"journal":{"name":"Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":2.9,"publicationDate":"2024-07-10","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141562018","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
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