ACS Earth and Space Chemistry最新文献

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Production Mechanism and Emissions of CO2 in Water Networks of an Agricultural Watershed during Drainage Period 排水期农业流域水网中的二氧化碳生成机制和排放量
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-03 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00077
Xia Li, Kaiming Liu, Hai Zhang, Xinyi Dong, Li Bai, Xiaolong Liu, Jun Li, Mingguo Wang
{"title":"Production Mechanism and Emissions of CO2 in Water Networks of an Agricultural Watershed during Drainage Period","authors":"Xia Li, Kaiming Liu, Hai Zhang, Xinyi Dong, Li Bai, Xiaolong Liu, Jun Li, Mingguo Wang","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00077","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00077","url":null,"abstract":"Growing evidence shows that water networks in agricultural watersheds, including rivers, paddy fields (PFs), and ditches (DCs), are hotspots of aquatic greenhouse gas emissions globally. However, the knowledge of the role of natural processes and anthropogenic activities, including agricultural practices, in promoting CO<sub>2</sub> production and emissions still remains unclear. In this study, sampling and analysis of different surface waters during the agricultural drainage period were conducted to clarify the production mechanism and emission of CO<sub>2</sub>. The results showed that all of the surface waters in the Nongjiang River (NJR) watershed acted as sources with respect to atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub>, while a few in the Honghe Wetland and the estuary acted as CO<sub>2</sub> sinks. Longitudinal variations of CO<sub>2</sub> in mainstreams of the NJR indicated that fertilizer application, manure, and sewage discharges stimulated the CO<sub>2</sub> production, while those in the Yalu River (YLR) were mainly affected by the natural wetlands. The accumulation of carbon and nitrogen in waters of PF and DC have enhanced CO<sub>2</sub> emissions during drainage periods. The high ratio of ΔCO<sub>2</sub>/ΔO<sub>2</sub> revealed the important role of the extensive respiration in CO<sub>2</sub> production in the NJR. Furthermore, the correlation between dissolved oxygen and CO<sub>2</sub> demonstrated that respiration and photosynthesis dominated CO<sub>2</sub> production and consumption in all types of water bodies. This study implied that agricultural water networks might be vague sources for aquatic systems, and effort is still urgently needed to quantitatively assess the CO<sub>2</sub> emissions in the context of wetland–farmland shifts regionally and worldwide.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-07-03","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141587474","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Better use the following title: Pathways to Interstellar Amides via Carbamoyl (NH2CO) Isomers by Radical-Neutral Reactions on Ice Grain Mantles 最好使用以下标题通过冰粒表面的辐射-中性反应,通过氨基甲酰基(NH2CO)异构体获得星际酰胺的途径
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-03 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00106
Gabriela Silva-Vera, Giulia M. Bovolenta, Namrata Rani, Sebastian Vera, Stefan Vogt-Geisse
{"title":"Better use the following title: Pathways to Interstellar Amides via Carbamoyl (NH2CO) Isomers by Radical-Neutral Reactions on Ice Grain Mantles","authors":"Gabriela Silva-Vera, Giulia M. Bovolenta, Namrata Rani, Sebastian Vera, Stefan Vogt-Geisse","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00106","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00106","url":null,"abstract":"Explaining the formation pathways of amides on ice-grain mantels is crucial to understanding the prebiotic chemistry in an interstellar medium. In this computational study, we explore different radical-neutral formation pathways for some of the observed amides (formamide, acetamide, urea, and <i>N</i>-methylformamide) via intermediate carbamoyl (NH<sub>2</sub>CO) radical precursors and their isomers. We assess the relative energy of four NH<sub>2</sub>CO isomers in the gas phase and evaluate their binding energy on small water clusters to discern the affinity that the isomers present to an ice model. We consider three possible reaction pathways for the formation of the carbamoyl radicals, namely, the OH + HCN, CN + H<sub>2</sub>O, and NH<sub>2</sub> + CO reaction channels. We computed the binding energy distribution for the HCN and CH<sub>3</sub>CN precursors on an ice model consisting of a set of clusters of 22 water molecules each to serve as a starting point for the reactivity study on the ice surface. The computations revealed that the lowest barrier to the formation of an NH<sub>2</sub>CO isomer corresponds to the NH<sub>2</sub> + CO reaction (12.6 kJ mol<sup>–1</sup>). The OH + HCN reaction pathway results in the exothermic formation of the N-radical form of carbamoyl HN(C═O)H with a reaction barrier of 26.7 kJ mol<sup>–1</sup>. We found that the CN + H<sub>2</sub>O reaction displays a high energy barrier of 70.6 kJ mol<sup>–1</sup>. Finally, we also probed the direct formation of the acetamide radical precursor via the OH + CH<sub>3</sub>CN reaction and found that the most probable outcome on interstellar ices is the H-abstraction reaction to yield CH<sub>2</sub>CN and H<sub>2</sub>O. Based on these results, we believe that including alternative reaction pathways, leading to the formation of amides via the N-radical form of carbamoyl, would provide an improvement in the prediction of the amide abundances in astrochemical models, especially regarding the chemistry of star-forming regions.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-07-03","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141530718","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Ethynyl Radical Hydrogen Abstraction Energetics and Kinetics Utilizing High-Level Theory 利用高层理论研究乙炔基自由基析氢能量学和动力学
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-03 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00040
Laura N. Olive, Alexandra D. Heide, Justin M. Turney, Henry F. Schaefer, III
{"title":"Ethynyl Radical Hydrogen Abstraction Energetics and Kinetics Utilizing High-Level Theory","authors":"Laura N. Olive, Alexandra D. Heide, Justin M. Turney, Henry F. Schaefer, III","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00040","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00040","url":null,"abstract":"The ethynyl radical, C<sub>2</sub>H, is found in a variety of different environments ranging from interstellar space and planetary atmospheres to playing an important role in the combustion of various alkynes under fuel-rich conditions. Hydrogen-atom abstraction reactions are common for the ethynyl radical in these contrasting environments. In this study, the C<sub>2</sub>H + HX → C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>2</sub> + X, where HX = HNCO, <i>trans</i>-HONO, <i>cis</i>-HONO, C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>, and CH<sub>3</sub>OH, reactions have been investigated at rigorously high levels of theory, including CCSD(T)-F12a/cc-pVTZ-F12. For the stationary points thus located, much higher levels of theory have been used, with basis sets as large as aug-cc-pV5Z and methods up to CCSDT(Q), and core correlation was also included. These molecules were chosen because they can be found in either interstellar or combustion environments. Various additive energy corrections have been included to converge the relative enthalpies of the stationary points to subchemical accuracy (≤0.5 kcal mol<sup>–1</sup>). Barriers predicted here (2.19 kcal mol<sup>–1</sup> for the HNCO reaction and 0.47 kcal mol<sup>–1</sup> for C<sub>2</sub>H<sub>4</sub>) are significantly lower than previous predictions. Reliable kinetics were acquired over a wide range of temperatures (50–5000 K), which may be useful for future experimental studies of these reactions.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-07-03","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141515257","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Seawater Redox Conditions in the Late Paleoproterozoic: Insight from the North China Craton 晚古生代海水氧化还原条件:来自华北克拉通的启示
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-01 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00061
Qing Ma, Yaoqi Zhou, Aubrey Zerkle, Mengchun Cao
{"title":"Seawater Redox Conditions in the Late Paleoproterozoic: Insight from the North China Craton","authors":"Qing Ma, Yaoqi Zhou, Aubrey Zerkle, Mengchun Cao","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00061","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00061","url":null,"abstract":"The “Boring Billion” (BB, ∼1800–800 Ma) is characterized by the perceived stasis of carbon isotopes within the geological record of that time. However, geochemical data obtained from global Paleo-Mesoproterozoic strata indicate heterogeneity and complexity of oxygen contents in the oceans, which hinder paleoenvironmental reconstructions from this period. Furthermore, there has been a dearth of studies focused on the Paleoproterozoic strata in the western and southern parts of the North China Craton (NCC). In this paper, we report elemental abundances and Fe speciation data from the Huangqikou Formation in the Ordos Basin, western NCC, and the Dagushi, Bingmagou, Baicaoping, and Puyu Formations in the Xiong’er Basin, southern NCC. Our latest findings, integrated with prior research, indicate that sedimentary environments in these parts of the NCC in the late Paleoproterozoic were uniformly anoxic and ferruginous. During a marine transgression, we see limited evidence of oxic surface waters entering the sedimentary water and resulting in intermittent oxygenation events in the Ordos Basin. However, microbial respiration of oxygen and/or limited oxygen replenishment under sluggish circulation in the basin might have caused the consistently anoxic conditions in the Xiong’er Basin during the late Paleoproterozoic.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-07-01","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141504617","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Seasonal Contrasts in Dissolved Selenium Dynamics in Subarctic Thaw Lakes 亚北极解冻湖泊溶解硒动态的季节对比
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-07-01 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00041
Audrey Laberge-Carignan, Martin Pilote, Dominic Larivière, Florence Mercier, Diogo Folhas, Raoul-Marie Couture
{"title":"Seasonal Contrasts in Dissolved Selenium Dynamics in Subarctic Thaw Lakes","authors":"Audrey Laberge-Carignan, Martin Pilote, Dominic Larivière, Florence Mercier, Diogo Folhas, Raoul-Marie Couture","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00041","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00041","url":null,"abstract":"Thermokarst ponds (thaw lakes) are ubiquitous in northern landscapes. They are hotspots for the biogeochemical processing of elements, such as carbon (C), nitrogen (N), sulfur (S), iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn). In turn, those elementary cycles may control the mobility of selenium (Se), an essential micronutrient. To unravel these coupled biogeochemical cycles and identify processes controlling Se mobility, we studied four thermokarst ponds in a subarctic peatland valley influenced by permafrost thaw. The data set comprises of water column and sediment porewater concentration profiles collected during both summer and winter. Physicochemical parameters and dissolved concentrations of major elements, nutrients, and Se were measured and used to model fluxes at the sediment–water interface and to calculate Se speciation. The results suggest that the proximity of the pond from the permafrost structures influenced their biogeochemical dynamics. In the ponds close to permafrost, Se concentrations are 2-fold higher in winter compared to summer, accompanied by an increase in sediment fluxes from 13 to 149 pmol cm<sup>–2</sup> yr<sup>–1</sup> between summer and winter. The combination of comparatively older dissolved organic matter and of oxygenated conditions explain the seasonal variation in Se concentrations. In the ponds further from the permafrost, Se concentrations are higher, remain unchanged in the water column across seasons, and are linearly correlated with both DOC (<i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.64, <i>p</i> &lt; 0.01, <i>n</i> = 50) and Fe (<i>R</i><sup>2</sup> = 0.60) concentrations. Thermodynamic calculations show that Se(IV) dominates Se speciation in the porewater at all sites, while the water column reaches saturation with respect to elemental zerovalent Se, suggesting that precipitation of elemental Se could mediate dissolved Se concentrations. Collectively, our results point to the strong control that redox conditions exert on Se mobility, via DOC and Fe, and to the linkages between landscape features, pond physicochemistry, and Se dynamics.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-07-01","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141515261","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Effect of Nitrogen on the Structure and Composition of Primordial Organic Matter Analogs 氮对原始有机物模拟物的结构和组成的影响
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-06-28 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00311
Pauline Lévêque, Clémence Queffelec, Christophe Sotin, Carlos Afonso, Olivier Bollengier, Adriana Clouet, Erwan Le Menn, Yves Marrocchi, Isabelle Schmitz, Bruno Bujoli
{"title":"Effect of Nitrogen on the Structure and Composition of Primordial Organic Matter Analogs","authors":"Pauline Lévêque, Clémence Queffelec, Christophe Sotin, Carlos Afonso, Olivier Bollengier, Adriana Clouet, Erwan Le Menn, Yves Marrocchi, Isabelle Schmitz, Bruno Bujoli","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00311","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00311","url":null,"abstract":"Organic molecules are ubiquitous in primitive solar system bodies such as comets and asteroids. These primordial organic compounds may have formed in the interstellar medium and in protoplanetary disks (PPDs) before being accreted and further transformed in the parent bodies of meteorites, icy moons, and dwarf planets. The present study describes the composition of primordial organics analogs produced in a laboratory simulator of the PPD (the Nebulotron experiment at the CRPG laboratory) with nitrogen contents varying from N/C &lt; 0.01 to N/C = 0.63. We present the first Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry analysis of these analogs. Several thousands of molecules with masses between <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> 100 and 500 are characterized. The mass spectra show a Gaussian shape with maxima around <i>m</i>/<i>z</i> 250. Highly condensed polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the most common compounds identified in the samples with lower nitrogen contents. As the amount of nitrogen increases, a dramatic increase of the chemical diversity is observed. Nitrogen-bearing compounds are also dominated by polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PANH) made of 5- and 6-membered rings containing up to four nitrogen atoms, including triazine and pyrazole rings. Such N-rich aromatic species are expected to decompose easily in the presence of water at higher temperatures. Pure carbon molecules are also observed for samples with relatively small fractions of nitrogen. MS peaks compatible with the presence of amino acids and nucleobases, or their isomers, are detected. When comparing these Nebulotron samples with the insoluble fraction of the Paris meteorite organic matter, we observe that the samples with intermediate N/C ratios bracketing that of the Paris insoluble organic matter (IOM) display relative proportions of the CH, CHO, CHN, and CHNO chemical families also bracketing those of the Paris IOM. Our results support that Nebulotron samples are relevant laboratory analogs of primitive chondritic organic matter.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-06-28","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141504719","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Role of Source, Mineralogy, and Organic Complexation on Lability and Fe Isotopic Composition of Terrestrial Fe sources to the Gulf of Alaska 阿拉斯加湾陆地铁源的来源、矿物学和有机络合作用对其稳定性和铁同位素组成的影响
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-06-27 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00338
Linqing Huang, Sarah M. Aarons, Bess G. Koffman, Wenhan Cheng, Lena Hanschka, Lee Ann Munk, Jordan Jenckes, Emmet Norris, Carli A. Arendt
{"title":"Role of Source, Mineralogy, and Organic Complexation on Lability and Fe Isotopic Composition of Terrestrial Fe sources to the Gulf of Alaska","authors":"Linqing Huang, Sarah M. Aarons, Bess G. Koffman, Wenhan Cheng, Lena Hanschka, Lee Ann Munk, Jordan Jenckes, Emmet Norris, Carli A. Arendt","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00338","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00338","url":null,"abstract":"Iron (Fe) is a key trace nutrient supporting marine primary production, and its deposition in the surface ocean can impact multiple biogeochemical cycles. Understanding Fe cycling in the subarctic is key for tracking the fate of particulate-bound sources of oceans in a changing climate. Recently, Fe isotope ratios have been proposed as a potential tool to trace sources of Fe to the marine environment. Here, we investigate the Fe isotopic composition of terrestrial sources of Fe including glacial sediment, loess, volcanic ash, and wildfire aerosols, all from Alaska. Results show that the δ<sup>56</sup>Fe values of glaciofluvial silt, glacial dissolved load, volcanic ash, and wildfire aerosols fall in a restricted range of δ<sup>56</sup>Fe values from −0.02 to +0.12‰, in contrast to the broader range of Fe isotopic compositions observed in loess, −0.50 to +0.13‰. The Fe isotopic composition of the dissolved load of glacial meltwater was consistently lighter compared to its particulate counterpart. The ‘aging’ (exposure to environmental conditions) of volcanic ash did not significantly fractionate the Fe isotopic composition. The Fe isotopic composition of wildfire aerosols collected during an active fire season in Alaska in the summer of 2019 was not significantly fractionated from those of the average upper continental crust composition. We find that the δ<sup>56</sup>Fe values of loess (&lt;5 μm fraction) were more negative (−0.32 to +0.05‰) with respect to all samples measured here, had the highest proportion of easily reducible Fe (5.9–59.6%), and were correlated with the degree of chemical weathering and organic matter content. Transmission electron spectroscopy measurements indicate an accumulation of amorphous Fe phases in the loess. Our results indicate that Fe isotopes can be related to Fe lability when in the presence of organic matter and that higher organic matter content is associated with a distinctly more negative Fe isotope signature likely due to Fe-organic complexation.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-06-27","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141532530","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
The Capture of Cadmium from Solution during the Replacement of Calcite by Apatite 磷灰石置换方解石过程中从溶液中捕获镉的过程
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-06-27 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00031
Maude Julia, Christine V. Putnis, Lorena H. Filiberto, Max Winkler
{"title":"The Capture of Cadmium from Solution during the Replacement of Calcite by Apatite","authors":"Maude Julia, Christine V. Putnis, Lorena H. Filiberto, Max Winkler","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00031","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00031","url":null,"abstract":"The capture of cadmium (Cd) from phosphate-containing solutions during the replacement of CaCO<sub>3</sub> by phosphate phases such as hydroxylapatite (HAP) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) has been studied under high and low temperature and pressure conditions using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy equipped with an X-ray spectrometer and a backscattered electron detector, Raman spectroscopy, and microprobe analysis. Starting with cubes of Carrara Marble (polycrystalline calcite) and single crystals of calcite, a new solid phosphate phase was observed to incorporate Cd from solution, formed under different pressure and temperature conditions tested. Results showed that Cd precipitated in a new phase on the surface of all samples tested. In Carrara Marble, pseudomorphic replacement of CaCO<sub>3</sub> is restricted possibly due to kinetic limitation caused by the adsorption of Cd complexes formed in solution at reactive surface sites and the variation of fluid composition inside the sample. However, on the sample surface, this kinetic limitation is less influential, so the new phase could incorporate higher amounts of Cd faster. Furthermore, this reaction at room temperature was found to have similar and/or better Cd-uptake efficiency as HAP and CaCO<sub>3</sub> in pure Cd solution through the precipitation of Cd-containing phosphate crystals on the sample surface. Both reactions were able to capture Cd in the precipitating phase structure and could provide a mechanism for simultaneous Cd and phosphate removal from solutions contaminated with both, in industrial or natural settings.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-06-27","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141515258","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Adaptive Changes in Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structures and Functions Occur under Primordial Conditions 原始条件下细菌和古细菌群落结构与功能的适应性变化
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-06-26 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00089
Xiao-Tong Wu, Yu-Qin He, Min Qiu, Guo-Xiang Li, Xiao-Bin Ou, Yi-Bo Wu, Peng Bao
{"title":"Adaptive Changes in Bacterial and Archaeal Community Structures and Functions Occur under Primordial Conditions","authors":"Xiao-Tong Wu, Yu-Qin He, Min Qiu, Guo-Xiang Li, Xiao-Bin Ou, Yi-Bo Wu, Peng Bao","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00089","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.4c00089","url":null,"abstract":"The microorganisms responsible for driving the Anammox and Sammox processes may have ancient origins and remain poorly understood. In this research, we enriched the microorganisms from paddy soils and marine sediments under Anammox and Sammox conditions to investigate the shifts in their structure and functions. The community structure showed significant differences between enrichment cultures of paddy soils and marine sediments under the Anammox and Sammox conditions. Among samples from paddy soils, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirota, Verrucomicrobiota, Gemmatimonadata, and Euryarchaeota accounted for a larger proportion under Anammox culture conditions, while Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetota, Acidobacteriota, Crenarchaeota, and Nanoarchaeota accounted for a larger proportion under Sammox culture conditions. Among samples from marine sediments, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, and Euryarchaeota accounted for a larger proportion in the Anammox culture conditions, while Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, Crenarchaeota, and Nanoarchaeota accounted for a larger proportion in Sammox culture conditions. Genes associated with assimilatory sulfate reduction, nitrate reduction, and denitrification pathways were more abundant under Anammox culture conditions, whereas genes related to dissimilatory sulfate reduction and nitrification pathways were more prevalent under Sammox culture conditions. These findings provide valuable insights into the ecological conditions and microbial species of the primordial era and may aid in the searching for extraterrestrial life.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-06-26","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141528959","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Water Uptake and Release of Nitrate Salt Mixtures of Relevance to the Atacama Desert and Mars 与阿塔卡马沙漠和火星有关的硝酸盐混合物的吸水和释放
IF 3.4 3区 化学
ACS Earth and Space Chemistry Pub Date : 2024-06-25 DOI: 10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00371
M. S. Fernanders, R. V. Gough, V. F. Chevrier, D. Boy, J. Boy, C. E. Carr, M. A. Tolbert
{"title":"Water Uptake and Release of Nitrate Salt Mixtures of Relevance to the Atacama Desert and Mars","authors":"M. S. Fernanders, R. V. Gough, V. F. Chevrier, D. Boy, J. Boy, C. E. Carr, M. A. Tolbert","doi":"10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00371","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acsearthspacechem.3c00371","url":null,"abstract":"Understanding the behavior of water in extreme environments is crucial in assessing its habitability potential. This study investigates the water uptake and release of nitrate and nitrate salt mixtures under Martian and Atacama Desert-like conditions. The Atacama serves as a Mars analogue due to its hyper-arid climate and shared salt composition. This study determines deliquescence and efflorescence relative humidities (DRH and ERH, respectively) for pure magnesium nitrate hexahydrate (Mg(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>·6H<sub>2</sub>O) as a function of temperature and perchlorate/nitrate mixtures at various ratios at 248 K. Finally, the effects of magnesium sulfate anhydrous (MgSO<sub>4</sub>) on Mg(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub>·6H<sub>2</sub>O are also investigated. Pure Mg(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> DRH varied with temperature (80% RH at 223 K to 63% at 268 K), while ERH remained constant at 24% RH across temperatures. When mixed with perchlorate, the DRH values were lowered, reaching values close to 40% RH. The less deliquescent MgSO<sub>4</sub> had minimal impact on Mg(NO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>2</sub> water uptake when mixed in equimolar ratios. The laboratory DRH conditions did not align with conditions found on Mars, indicating that the salt mixtures are unlikely to deliquesce under Martian conditions found at Gale Crater. However, the warmer temperatures of the Atacama may favor water uptake. Therefore, the DRH and ERH data were applied to two sites in the Atacama. Conditions in the Atacama support water uptake by nitrates in the fall/winter seasons, allowing for the possibility of metastable brines persisting for extended periods. Thus, although nitrates may enhance habitability in the Atacama, they may play less of a role in habitability on Mars.","PeriodicalId":15,"journal":{"name":"ACS Earth and Space Chemistry","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":3.4,"publicationDate":"2024-06-25","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141504618","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"化学","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
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