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Insights and Nanoarchitectonics in Fe-Substituted Newer NaSICON Na4MnxFeyCrz(PO4)3 Cathodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries 用于钠离子电池的铁取代新型 NaSICON Na4MnxFeyCrz(PO4)3 阴极的见解和纳米结构
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02196
Subramaniam Gokulnath, Senthilkumar Krishnan, Veena Yadav, Marappan Sathish
{"title":"Insights and Nanoarchitectonics in Fe-Substituted Newer NaSICON Na4MnxFeyCrz(PO4)3 Cathodes for Sodium-Ion Batteries","authors":"Subramaniam Gokulnath, Senthilkumar Krishnan, Veena Yadav, Marappan Sathish","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02196","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02196","url":null,"abstract":"Sodium-ion batteries are receiving a lot of interest in new electrochemical storage systems because they are less expensive than lithium-ion batteries. NaSICON-structured cathode materials such as Na<sub>3</sub>MnZr(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, Na<sub>4</sub>MnV(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub>, and Na<sub>4</sub>MnCr(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub> are attractive because of their high voltage and capacity. As with different transition metals, the performance of cathode materials varies. In the present research, the partial substitution of Na<sub>4</sub>Mn<sub><i>x</i></sub>Fe<sub><i>y</i></sub>Cr<sub><i>z</i></sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>3</sub> with three different Fe concentrations was performed and their electrochemical performance was investigated. The refined X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of synthesized materials show a rhombohedral structure over an <i>R</i>3̅<i>c</i> space group. The Fe substitution had an unfavorable influence on the electrochemical performance, resulting in a reduced capacity of 86 mAh g<sup>–1</sup>. Aside from diminished specific capacity, replacing Mn with Fe improved the rate performance in the three compositions by reducing polarization in redox pairs. The enhanced rate performance when incorporating more Fe atoms was explained by the sodium-ion migration barrier in the material, which was predicted using theoretical bond valence site energy (BVSE) analysis and reflected by the diffusion coefficient calculated using the experimental galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) approach.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-09","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576586","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Graded Evaluation and Controls on In Situ Oil Content within Lacustrine Shale of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China 中国松辽盆地上白垩统青山口组湖相页岩原位含油率分级评价及控制研究
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02003
Xindi Shao, Yan Song, Lin Jiang, Xingzhi Ma, Zhenxue Jiang
{"title":"Graded Evaluation and Controls on In Situ Oil Content within Lacustrine Shale of the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation, Songliao Basin, China","authors":"Xindi Shao, Yan Song, Lin Jiang, Xingzhi Ma, Zhenxue Jiang","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02003","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02003","url":null,"abstract":"A pyrolysis parameter <i>S</i><sub>1</sub> is widely used to evaluate the oiliness of rocks. When the <i>S</i><sub>1</sub> (free hydrocarbon) is used to evaluate shale oil resources, there is often a phenomenon of light hydrocarbon loss and heavy hydrocarbon loss, resulting in underestimation of the amount of resources. To accurately estimate the oil content of shale, this study establishes a light hydrocarbon recovery coefficient curve based on routine rock pyrolysis and related geochemical tests, and calculates a heavy hydrocarbon correction coefficient. This study have ascertained the in situ oil content of the Qingshankou Formation shale in the northern part of the Songliao Basin, identified the controlling factors of in situ oil content, and quantitatively assessed the mobility and movable resource volume of shale oil. The research reveals that light hydrocarbon loss ranges from 0.01 to 8.69 mg HC/g Rock, heavy hydrocarbon loss varies between 0.04 and 4.05 mg HC/g Rock, and in situ oil content spans from 0.04 to 16.38 mg HC/g Rock. The latter accounts for roughly 3.9 to 6.3 times the measured <i>S</i><sub>1</sub>, indicating that the district is mainly enriched and moderately riched with resources. Organic matter abundance, thermal evolution degree, and reservoir structure are the principal factors controlling the in situ oil content of shale. Movable oil content ranges from 0.02 to 11.30 mg HC/g Rock, and the movable resource quantity approximates 84.84 × 10<sup>8</sup> t, constituting about 59.45% of the total resources, suggesting large potential and high mobility. The results of this study can provide theoretical and practical guidance for shale oil resource evaluation and sweet spot optimization in the regional area.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-09","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576584","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Insight into Fluid Occurrence and Pore Structure of Lacustrine Shale from the Cretaceous Tengger Formation, A’nan Sag, Erlian Basin, China 中国二连盆地阿南麓白垩系腾格里地层湖相页岩流体赋存及孔隙结构揭示
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02071
Xin Xiang, Weining Dan, Shuangfang Lu, Pengfei Zhang, Bin Li, Lanzhu Cao, Yan Wei, Xiwei Li, Jie Fan, Junjie Wang, Quanfeng Yang, Xiuli Wei, Ge Gao
{"title":"Insight into Fluid Occurrence and Pore Structure of Lacustrine Shale from the Cretaceous Tengger Formation, A’nan Sag, Erlian Basin, China","authors":"Xin Xiang, Weining Dan, Shuangfang Lu, Pengfei Zhang, Bin Li, Lanzhu Cao, Yan Wei, Xiwei Li, Jie Fan, Junjie Wang, Quanfeng Yang, Xiuli Wei, Ge Gao","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02071","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02071","url":null,"abstract":"Fluid occurrence and pore structure are prerequisites for exploring the enrichment pattern of shale oil. The Cretaceous Tengger Formation in the A’nan Sag, Erlian Basin, China, contains abundant shale oil resources. In this study, a series of NMR T<sub>2</sub> and T<sub>1</sub>–T<sub>2</sub>, combined with Rock-Eval, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption–desorption (LTNA/D), were conducted to clarify the fluid occurrence and pore structure characteristics of the shale oil reservoirs. Meanwhile, the influences of the pore structure on fluid occurrence were discussed. Results suggest that the in situ occurrences and distributions of pore water and oil can be well analyzed by the NMR T<sub>1</sub>–T<sub>2</sub> technique combined with water and oil restorations. The selected shales are characterized by high contents of capillary-bound water and bound oil, and bound oil mainly contributes to shale oil, followed by adsorbed and movable oil. The shales at the as-received state have lost half of the capillary-bound water, as well as most of the bound and movable oil, while adsorbed oil is less affected. The pore spaces primarily consist of interparticle pores related to brittle granules, followed by intraparticle pores in clay mineral aggregates. The T<sub>2</sub> spectra are characterized by the dominant peak p2 ranging from 0.7 to 20 ms, corresponding to the developed mesopores (100–1000 nm). Fluid occurrence is closely related to pore structures. Capillary-bound water primarily occurs in micropores (&lt;25 nm) and minipores (25–100 nm) and coexists with adsorbed oil. Mesopores and macropores (&gt;1000 nm) are mainly saturated with bound and movable oil, respectively. The developed large pores generally correspond to less capillary-bound water but more shale oil, especially bound and movable oil. These findings may improve the understanding of enrichment mechanisms of shale oil and provide the references for sweet spot exploitation in the A’nan Sag, Erlian Basin.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-09","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576585","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Multiwell Fracturing Characteristic in Layered Heterogeneous Formation and the Optimization of Stimulated Reservoir Volume 层状异质地层中的多井压裂特征及优化压裂储层体积
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01545
Xiao Ke, Quan Wang, Hao Yu, XiuYuan Chen, YiLun Zhong, YingQi Li, HengAn Wu
{"title":"Multiwell Fracturing Characteristic in Layered Heterogeneous Formation and the Optimization of Stimulated Reservoir Volume","authors":"Xiao Ke, Quan Wang, Hao Yu, XiuYuan Chen, YiLun Zhong, YingQi Li, HengAn Wu","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01545","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01545","url":null,"abstract":"Hydraulic fracturing within multiwell pads is considered an effective technique for enhancing the recovery of oil/gas resources, but the fracture propagation behaviors have not been fully understood, typically considering the layered heterogeneous construction and intricate stress interference effects. This work establishes a multiwell fracturing model based on the three-dimensional displacement and pore pressure coupled cohesive method to precisely characterize the propagation and morphology features of the hydraulic fracture. The flow behavior in the well follows the Bernoulli equation, and the fluid distribution at each perforation point is automatically regulated with the fluid pipe element. The fracturing model is validated with the analytical solution for the penny-shaped fracture. Various fracturing scenarios, including the spatial relations of wells and clusters and the geological conditions are thoroughly revealed. The results demonstrate that the layered formation significantly influences the stress interference between wells and clusters and thus alters the fracture propagation. It can be observed that the intercluster stress interference is weakened when confined within the layered formation, where the fractures grow uniformly along the lateral direction even with a small cluster spacing. When the wells are located at different layers, three typical propagation modes are summarized as lateral propagation, penetration, and aggregation, depending on the in situ stress, rock strength, and fracture energy of different layers in the formation. Meanwhile, optimization of the well pattern is discussed from the perspective of the fracture area to achieve the maximization of the stimulated reservoir volume (SRV). These insights are helpful for the design and implementation of multiwell fracturing technology in tight formation with layered heterogeneous construction.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-09","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576583","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Fuel Ignition Delay Maps for Molecularly Controlled Combustion 分子控制燃烧的燃料点火延迟图
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c00662
Marcel Neumann, Jan G. Rittig, Ahmed Ben Letaief, Christian Honecker, Philipp Ackermann, Alexander Mitsos, Manuel Dahmen, Stefan Pischinger
{"title":"Fuel Ignition Delay Maps for Molecularly Controlled Combustion","authors":"Marcel Neumann, Jan G. Rittig, Ahmed Ben Letaief, Christian Honecker, Philipp Ackermann, Alexander Mitsos, Manuel Dahmen, Stefan Pischinger","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c00662","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c00662","url":null,"abstract":"Molecularly controlled combustion systems (MCCSs) combine the advantages of compression-ignition and spark-ignition engines by employing both a low reactivity fuel and a high reactivity fuel (HRF). To optimize the MCCS, fuels must be tailored to the engine requirements with respect to fuel reactivity. We aim at deriving requirements for HRFs and identification of suitable HRF candidates. Single-cylinder experiments are performed to assess the suitability of conventional reactivity indicators for MCCS. Fuel ignition delay time (IDT) maps are proposed as alternative reactivity indicators conveying more information. The maps are constructed through five representative IDT measurements at varying temperatures and pressures within the constant volume combustion chamber of the advanced fuel ignition delay analyzer (AFIDA). Specifically, the IDT maps cover the temperature and pressure range of 500–700 °C and 10–35 bar, respectively; and the IDT is measured at the four corner points of that range and the center point. We present measured IDT maps for more than 50 oxygenated and nonoxygenated hydrocarbon species and analyze suitability for MCCSs, e.g., 1,3-dioxane and 1-heptanol are found as possible HRF. The measurement data are further utilized to develop a graph neural network (GNN) model that can predict IDT maps directly from the molecular structure with high accuracy, constituting a first step toward in-silico screening of HRFs for MCCSs.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-09","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576497","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Iron Catalyzed Methane Pyrolysis in a Stratified Fluidized Bed Reactor 分层流化床反应器中的铁催化甲烷热解
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-09 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01484
Shailesh Pathak, Eric McFarland
{"title":"Iron Catalyzed Methane Pyrolysis in a Stratified Fluidized Bed Reactor","authors":"Shailesh Pathak, Eric McFarland","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01484","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01484","url":null,"abstract":"Methane pyrolysis at 950 °C and 1 atm was investigated on iron containing catalysts derived from a magnetite (Fe<sub>3</sub>O<sub>4</sub>) ore in a semibatch fluidized bed reactor. The magnetite particulates (∼10–50 μm) were observed to undergo reduction and fragmentation to approximately 100 nm iron–iron carbide catalysts in 100% methane as the fluidized bed reactor was heated to 950 °C at high gas flow rates. After prereduction, the flow rate was decreased to a weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) of 3.5 h<sup>–1</sup>, and the activity was observed to increase at 950 °C to a maximum methane conversion of approximately 90% (turnover frequency ∼ 0.3 s<sup>–1</sup>). At maximum activity, the C/Fe ratio was approximately 2. With increasing time on stream, the catalyst activity and particle density decreased. As solid carbon was deposited on the iron containing catalyst, the semibatch fluidized bed volume, C/Fe, and void fraction increased at a constant WHSV. The graphitic carbon product accumulated in and around the catalyst particles with increasing time, consistent with the observed decrease in activity as access of methane to the catalyst surface was limited by diffusion through an increasingly impermeable graphite barrier. The C/Fe mass ratio of the deactivated catalyst particles was observed to be approximately 5.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-09","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576582","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Zr-Based Metal–Organic Framework (UiO-66) Doped with Rare-Earth Element (La, Y)-Supported Polyoxometalate Liquid for Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene Oxidation 掺杂稀土元素(La,Y)的 Zr 基金属有机框架(UiO-66)支撑的聚氧化金属酸盐液体用于二苯并噻吩氧化脱硫
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01125
Mingyu Liao, Yuanjie Xiao, Xiaolin Pi, Linfeng Zhang, Miaomiao Zheng, Jianbin Liu, Huadong Wu, Jia Guo
{"title":"Zr-Based Metal–Organic Framework (UiO-66) Doped with Rare-Earth Element (La, Y)-Supported Polyoxometalate Liquid for Oxidative Desulfurization of Dibenzothiophene Oxidation","authors":"Mingyu Liao, Yuanjie Xiao, Xiaolin Pi, Linfeng Zhang, Miaomiao Zheng, Jianbin Liu, Huadong Wu, Jia Guo","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01125","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01125","url":null,"abstract":"By designing metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) doped with rare-earth elements, we can enhance catalytic activity and stability in a novel way. In the realm of oxidative desulfurization (ODS), polyoxometalate-ionic liquids have outstanding desulfurization performance. Herein, to create La-UiO-66 and Y-UiO-66, respectively, rare-earth elements (REs) of yttrium (Y) and lanthanum (La) were doped into the Zr-based metal–organic framework UiO-66. After that, the catalyst [C<sub>12</sub>mim]<sub>3</sub>PW<sub>12</sub>O<sub>40</sub>/RE-UiO-66 was prepared by supporting a type of polyoxometalate-ionic liquid [C<sub>12</sub>mim]<sub>3</sub>PW<sub>12</sub>O<sub>40</sub> with a large specific surface area and stable structure on RE-UiO-66 (RE = La or Y). The catalyst was characterized and analyzed by XRD, FT-IR, SEM, and other methods. The ODS reaction of the dibenzothiophene model oil was conducted in the oxidative desulfurization experiment with H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> as the oxidant and [C<sub>12</sub>mim]<sub>3</sub>PW<sub>12</sub>O<sub>40</sub>/RE-UiO-66 as the catalyst, and the ideal reaction conditions were determined. Under the optimum reaction conditions (<i>T</i> = 60 °C, O/S = 5), due to the strength of electron transfer over the catalysts, the DBT removal efficiencies of [C<sub>12</sub>mim]<sub>3</sub>PW<sub>12</sub>O<sub>40</sub>/0.18La-UiO-66–25% and [C<sub>12</sub>mim]<sub>3</sub>PW<sub>12</sub>O<sub>40</sub>/0.09Y-UiO-66–25% were 100% in 40 min and 97% in 60 min, respectively. The desulfurization efficiency was maintained at 91% after 13 cycles with [C<sub>12</sub>mim]<sub>3</sub>PW<sub>12</sub>O<sub>40</sub>/0.18La-UiO-66–25% as a catalyst. In addition, a proposed reaction mechanism for the ODS reaction over this catalyst was presented.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-08","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576588","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
TiO2/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Xanthan Gum Nanofluid: A Promising Candidate for Enhanced Oil Recovery 二氧化钛/十二烷基硫酸钠/黄原胶纳米流体:有望用于提高石油采收率的纳米流体
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01925
Snehangshu Paine, Kalisadhan Mukherjee, Achinta Bera
{"title":"TiO2/Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate/Xanthan Gum Nanofluid: A Promising Candidate for Enhanced Oil Recovery","authors":"Snehangshu Paine, Kalisadhan Mukherjee, Achinta Bera","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01925","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01925","url":null,"abstract":"In this study, a TiO<sub>2</sub>/sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/xanthan gum (XG) nanofluid is prepared to investigate its effectiveness in additional oil recovery. TiO<sub>2</sub> nanoparticles were synthesized via the sol–gel method and subsequently calcined at 350 °C. The crystalline nature and microstructural features of the synthesized TiO<sub>2</sub> were characterized using X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared, and scanning electron microscopy. The TiO<sub>2</sub>/SDS/XG nanofluid was prepared using a probe sonicator until a clear dispersion of the mixture was achieved. The particle size of the nanofluid was determined through a dynamic light scattering analyzer, revealing a size of approximately 12–18 nm. The prepared nanofluid altered the wettability toward water-wet and reduced the interfacial tension between crude oil and the nanofluid to 0.00771 mN/m, along with surface tension values dropping to 33.2 mN/m. Such changes led to a reduction in capillary force, which in turn facilitated enhanced oil recovery (EOR). An imbibition study was also conducted using collected sandstone cores to measure excess oil recovery in the presence of the prepared nanofluid at a temperature of 50 °C and atmospheric pressure. The imbibition study showed that the nanofluid comprising 0.1% XG, 0.1% SDS, and 0.01% TiO<sub>2</sub> recovered 28% of the original oil in place, which is 33.33% higher than the formulation with 0.1% XG and 0.1% SDS and 100% higher than the 0.1% XG alone. Hence, the proposed formulation shows promise as a potential candidate for chemical EOR methods.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-08","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576590","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Promoting N–H Bond Formation by an Alkali Metal Hydride under Confinement 在限制条件下促进碱金属氢化物形成 N-H 键
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01071
Meng Zhu, Haolan Tao, Cheng Lian, Honglai Liu
{"title":"Promoting N–H Bond Formation by an Alkali Metal Hydride under Confinement","authors":"Meng Zhu, Haolan Tao, Cheng Lian, Honglai Liu","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01071","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c01071","url":null,"abstract":"The activation of dinitrogen is the key step in ammonia production, which is usually conducted at transition-metal catalysts (Fe and Ru) with the condition of high temperatures and pressures (400–500 °C and 10–30 MPa). A recent development in catalytic ammonia synthesis is the use of potassium hydride-intercalated graphite (K<sub><i>x</i></sub>H<sub><i>y</i></sub>C<sub><i>z</i></sub>) as catalysts, which can activate dinitrogen at relatively moderate temperatures and pressures (250–400 °C and 1 MPa) without expensive transition metals. The nanoconfinement of alkali metal hydride between the graphene layers plays an important role in the activation and conversion of dinitrogen. It is attractive to further elucidate the interplay rules between nitrogen-based intermediates, metal hydride, and graphene layers. In this work, we designed three kinds of alkali metal hydride (MH)-intercalated graphene catalysts (Li<sub><i>x</i></sub>HC<sub>96</sub>, Na<sub><i>x</i></sub>HC<sub>96</sub>, K<sub><i>x</i></sub>HC<sub>96</sub>) as a platform for exploring the reaction mechanism of nitrogen at two-dimensional confinement. We found that the alternating associative pathway of the ammonia synthesis is dominant over the MH-intercalated graphene catalysts. The activated *H from MH contributes to the hydrogenation process of N<sub>2</sub> to form NH<sub>3</sub> molecules. The graphene layers with Å-level confined spacing promote the electron transfer between the reaction intermediate and alkali metals, which is favorable for the regeneration of the MHC<sub>96</sub> catalytic system. This work provides theoretical insights into the design of alkali metal hydride-based catalysts for nitrogen activation.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-08","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576587","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
引用次数: 0
Hydrate Decomposition Inhibitors by Phase Change Cooling Storage Based on an Electrostatic Spraying Method 基于静电喷涂法的相变冷却储存水合物分解抑制剂
IF 5.3 3区 工程技术
Energy & Fuels Pub Date : 2024-07-08 DOI: 10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02093
Jianxun Guo, Jintang Wang, Bo Liao, Mei-Chun Li, Xindi Lv, Qi Wang, Yiyao Li, Wenbiao Li, Ke Zhao, Na Wu, Jinsheng Sun
{"title":"Hydrate Decomposition Inhibitors by Phase Change Cooling Storage Based on an Electrostatic Spraying Method","authors":"Jianxun Guo, Jintang Wang, Bo Liao, Mei-Chun Li, Xindi Lv, Qi Wang, Yiyao Li, Wenbiao Li, Ke Zhao, Na Wu, Jinsheng Sun","doi":"10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02093","DOIUrl":"https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.energyfuels.4c02093","url":null,"abstract":"The heat transfer of drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir is the main cause of reservoir hydrate decomposition and borehole wall instability. Impeding or retarding heat transfer from drilling fluid to hydrate reservoir is key to maintaining reservoir hydrate stability. In order to intelligently control the temperature of the drilling fluid in the wellbore, phase change microcapsules were prepared using an innovative method of electrostatic spraying and physical cross-linking with mixed alkane as the core material and sodium alginate as the shell material. This synthesis method can control the particle size of phase change microcapsules. The phase change microcapsules were characterized by SEM, optical microscopy, and particle size analyzer. The experimental results presented that the latent heat of melting of the phase change material is 158.04 J/g, and the latent heat of solidification is 161.63 J/g. In addition, the microcapsules also have excellent thermal stability, and the thermal conductivity coefficient is 0.384 W/(m·°C). The results of the hydrate decomposition experiment show that the phase change microcapsules can effectively delay the decomposition of hydrates. These results provide valuable insights into a better understanding of the rational development of high-performance hydrate decomposition inhibitors for drilling fluids and the construction of drilling fluid systems.","PeriodicalId":35,"journal":{"name":"Energy & Fuels","volume":null,"pages":null},"PeriodicalIF":5.3,"publicationDate":"2024-07-08","publicationTypes":"Journal Article","fieldsOfStudy":null,"isOpenAccess":false,"openAccessPdf":"","citationCount":null,"resultStr":null,"platform":"Semanticscholar","paperid":"141576747","PeriodicalName":null,"FirstCategoryId":null,"ListUrlMain":null,"RegionNum":3,"RegionCategory":"工程技术","ArticlePicture":[],"TitleCN":null,"AbstractTextCN":null,"PMCID":"","EPubDate":null,"PubModel":null,"JCR":null,"JCRName":null,"Score":null,"Total":0}
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