Herpes zoster in older adults: Impact on carbon footprint in the United States.

IF 4.1 4区 医学 Q2 BIOTECHNOLOGY & APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics Pub Date : 2024-12-31 Epub Date: 2024-05-03 DOI:10.1080/21645515.2024.2335722
Desmond Curran, Jacopo Bitetti, Imogen Catterall, Stephen Wincott
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引用次数: 0

Abstract

We provide estimates for (I) annual herpes zoster (HZ) cases, (II) carbon costs related to healthcare utilization, and (III) annual carbon emissions due to HZ among ≥50 years of age (YOA) United States (US) population. We estimated the annual number of HZ cases in the US based on available incidence data and demographic data of individuals ≥50 YOA. Both the healthcare resource utilization (HCRU) associated with HZ cases and the unit carbon dioxide equivalent (i.e. CO2e) costs associated with each type of HCRU in the US were estimated based on literature and studies available online. The carbon footprint associated with HZ annually among US adults ≥50 YOA was estimated by multiplying the unit carbon estimates by the HCRU. In the US population aged ≥50 YOA in 2020 (i.e. approximately 118 million), approximately 1.1 million cases of HZ occur annually assuming no vaccination. Based on 2 sources of HCRU the average kgCO2e per HZ patient ranged from 61.0 to 97.6 kgCO2e, with values by age group ranging from 40.9 kgCO2e in patients aged 50-59 to 195.9 kgCO2e in patients ≥80 YOA. The total annual HZ associated carbon ranged between 67,000 and 107,000 tons of CO2e in the US population aged ≥50 YOA. The impact of HZ on carbon footprint in the US results in considerable greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions. Assuming no vaccination, the burden of HZ is projected to rise over the coming years with the aging populations consequently worsening its impact on GHG emissions. (Figure 1).

老年人带状疱疹:对美国碳足迹的影响。
我们提供了美国≥50 岁(YOA)人口中(I)带状疱疹(HZ)年病例数、(II)与医疗保健使用相关的碳成本以及(III)HZ 年碳排放量的估计值。我们根据现有的发病率数据和年龄≥50 岁人群的人口统计数据估算了美国每年的 HZ 病例数。与 HZ 病例相关的医疗资源利用率 (HCRU) 以及与美国各类 HCRU 相关的单位二氧化碳当量(即 CO2e)成本都是根据网上的文献和研究进行估算的。通过将单位碳估算值乘以 HCRU,估算出美国年龄≥50 岁的成年人每年与 HZ 相关的碳足迹。在 2020 年年龄≥50 岁的美国人口(即约 1.18 亿人)中,假设不接种疫苗,每年约有 110 万例 HZ 病例。根据 HCRU 的两个来源,每个 HZ 患者的平均 kgCO2e 从 61.0 kgCO2e 到 97.6 kgCO2e 不等,各年龄组的数值从 50-59 岁患者的 40.9 kgCO2e 到年龄≥80 岁患者的 195.9 kgCO2e 不等。在年龄≥50 岁的美国人口中,每年与 HZ 相关的碳总量介于 67,000 至 107,000 吨 CO2e 之间。HZ 对美国碳足迹的影响导致大量温室气体(GHG)排放。假定不接种疫苗,随着人口老龄化,预计未来几年 HZ 的负担会增加,从而加剧其对温室气体排放的影响。(图 1)。
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来源期刊
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics BIOTECHNOLOGY & APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY-IMMUNOLOGY
CiteScore
7.90
自引率
8.30%
发文量
489
审稿时长
3-6 weeks
期刊介绍: (formerly Human Vaccines; issn 1554-8619) Vaccine research and development is extending its reach beyond the prevention of bacterial or viral diseases. There are experimental vaccines for immunotherapeutic purposes and for applications outside of infectious diseases, in diverse fields such as cancer, autoimmunity, allergy, Alzheimer’s and addiction. Many of these vaccines and immunotherapeutics should become available in the next two decades, with consequent benefit for human health. Continued advancement in this field will benefit from a forum that can (A) help to promote interest by keeping investigators updated, and (B) enable an exchange of ideas regarding the latest progress in the many topics pertaining to vaccines and immunotherapeutics. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics provides such a forum. It is published monthly in a format that is accessible to a wide international audience in the academic, industrial and public sectors.
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